The report - regardless of what audience it is intended for, as well as regardless of the stage of education (school, university, etc.) - requires careful, thorough preparation. As we have already said, the report has to be made by both the student and the schoolboy, and therefore this topic is important like no other. But first you need to understand: what is a “report" in general?
What is a report?
It should start with the fact that the report implies some “verbal”; it is aimed at speaking to the audience. This already explains the main paradox: a report is what you will do, for example, at a conference. Why then should it be “formalized”, done in accordance with some rules governing its appearance? This is really a strangeness, but a strangeness is natural - any conferences are recorded, archives are made, reports are published, and so on. If you are a student or researcher - this is understandable, but why, one wonders, do the same requirements apply to schoolchildren? This can only be explained by the pathological desire to “prepare for adulthood” students, instill in them some kind of mental discipline.
The report on the genre is close to the abstract, but has some differences: the report can cover both a whole scientific field and a certain number of ideas, developments, opinions, and the abstract is much more strict in this regard. For example, there are entire abstract journals in which the abstract has a clear structure and purpose is to give a brief overview of scientific works (dissertations, monographs, etc.). In a more general sense, summarization is a retelling, “squeezing”, and therefore it is based more likely on some specific source. Well, an abstract is a text work, a report implies a presentation. In this sense, the text of the report is something like a cheat sheet for the speaker, as well as a form of fixing the speech necessary for its distribution.
The report should be based on the scientific method, and also comply with the general methodology of science within which it exists. Summarizing, it must meet the modern criteria of science. This implies relying on the experience of predecessors, the use of special terminology, in the broad sense provability.
If we talk about what the report should ideally be, then it should also have scientific and practical significance, be truly relevant. At the same time, it is desirable to maintain understandability and accessibility of the language, and to make the content so that the topic of the report and its value are obvious to a wide range of listeners and readers.
How to make a report
Requirements for the content of the report are determined by the event (event) and the purpose for which the report is written. If the report is made for a speech to classmates - this is one thing, if it is written for a serious scientific conference - this is another. In both cases, you can find out the full information from the teacher or organizer, as requirements each time can be very different. The report is really primarily an oral genre, but many teachers at universities, and after them school teachers, require that the report conform to the form and structure of more serious works - term papers or diplomas. It is unclear why this is happening, because the performance implies a looser structure. Nevertheless, you have to obey and make a report according to the following scheme:
- Title page. How to draw it up, read the relevant articles: the title page of the report for the student or student,
- Content. This is a table of contents, as well as a demonstration of the structure of the work. As a rule, the presence of the following structural elements is mandatory: introduction, the main part (should consist of two chapters, while it is advisable to divide each chapter into at least a couple of paragraphs), conclusion, list of references (sources).
In view of the fact that when writing a report, one must rely primarily on existing, published scientific works, it would be nice to make footnotes (links) in the text of the report. In more detail about them we wrote in the article about the footnotes in the term papers, but the requirements for them do not depend on the type of work - they are general and fixed in GOST.
Regarding the design of the report - i.e. directly how to do it on a computer in Word (fields, font, etc.) - we have two instructions: for schoolchildren and for students.
Before you start writing a report, you need to draw up a plan, think through the structure and content of future work.
Typically, the volume of the text does not exceed five A4 pages, typed 14 point.
A quality report has four main structural elements:
- Introduction is a welcome part.
- Introduction At this stage, the speaker should interest the audience, formulate the relevance, novelty of the research, emphasize the importance and purpose of the work.
- Main part. It tells about the research methods used, the work done, the results are analyzed.
- Conclusion The results of the work. The speaker completes the presentation.
The standards for writing a report are similar to the rules for presenting an abstract.
There is no separate GOST for the student report, so you should focus on the methodological recommendations of the university or department.
If special requirements for the structure, content and design of the report are not presented, you can rely on the well-known GOSTs - 7.32-2001, 7.9-95, used when writing term papers, diplomas, abstracts and other types of research papers and reports.
A distinctive feature of the report is the scientific style of presentation. Not allowed to use:
- long complex sentences that make it difficult to understand,
- uncommon foreign words, highly specialized terminology, known to a limited circle of professionals,
- introductory structures that do not carry a semantic load,
- common words.
The position of the author in the report should be demonstrated minimally, the use of the pronouns "I", "mine" (point of view) is unacceptable.
How to write a report
Before you start writing a report, you should carefully consider where to start and how to end the message. A detailed plan with headings and subheadings helps to cope with the task.
Writing a report includes five main steps:
- Selection of topics. It is good when the student has a choice, as in this case it will be more interesting to work.
- Search for literature on the topic (on the Internet, library) - at least ten sources. After selection, you should study the information presented to select the most interesting and important material.
- Planning. It is necessary to focus on the listener.
- Summing up, formulation of conclusions.
- Preparing for answers to possible questions.
How to write a report?
We will talk more about how to draw up a report a little later. Now - about the work that you have to do. It is conditionally possible to divide it into four stages:
Stage One. Topic selection
Everything is simple here. If the teacher gave a list of topics, choose the one that you like most. If you were asked to come up with a topic yourself (for example, within a certain sphere), take the one that you like. Even in boring discipline, there is something interesting. And you can always connect one discipline with another. For example, a history buff while preparing a report on jurisprudence may consider the history of the development of law. A musician who has become a student at a medical university may consider the effect of music on health. You are free to choose any topic, if the teacher allows it.
Stage Two. Search and study of literature
With the Internet, finding literature on a topic has become much easier. You don’t have to dig for hours in a file cabinet and shovel hundreds of books. It is enough to make a request in a search engine. Alas, the network has a lot of “bullshit” (that is, absolutely useless, often false information). Definitely not worth using regular sites, banks of abstracts and reports and other similar resources. Wikipedia needs to be handled carefully, double-checking the information. The best source is scientific work. You can find them online, for example, using Google Academy. If only links to work are posted, you will have to go to the library.
Be sure to save not only the names and data of the authors of scientific works, but also the year of publication and the name of the publishers in which the works are published. Indicate pages if the work is placed in the collection
Stage Three. Writing the main body
This stage is divided into three parts.
First - preparation of abstracts. If you have already written an essay, you know how to do it. One thesis is enough - all work will be built around it.
Note! In the thesis, as in the whole report, there should be no subjective opinion - yours or someone else's. This is the main difference between the report and the essay. What matters here is objectivity.
Second part - preparation of a plan (structure) of work. The structure depends on the topic you choose. It can be linear or branched, can go from the thesis to argumentation, and vice versa, can have a descriptive or analytical character.
Third part - the actual work on the text. There are very few rules for writing a report, we will talk about them below.
Stage Four. Work on introduction and conclusion
The introduction and conclusion of the report is typical of any student work. In the introduction, we formulate the problem (thesis), justify the choice of the topic (optional), evaluate relevance, indicate the purpose and objectives of the report, and characterize the literature used.
In conclusion, we draw conclusions, summarize the information presented in the main part.
That, in fact, is all. It remains only to draw up a title page and a list of references. Before you print a report, do not be too lazy to re-read it again, but rather - check the services for uniqueness and errors.
How to write a report "excellent"?
The report is able to prepare any student. But not everyone will be put “excellent”, and not everyone will be remembered. So that your work is noted not only by other students, but also by teachers, be guided by three rules for writing a report:
- Uniqueness. Do not copy phrases or paragraphs of text. Neither from the Internet nor from library books. It is not difficult to check the uniqueness, and you cannot deceive even a young and inexperienced teacher.
- Literacy. You should be interested in not only spelling and punctuation errors, but also actual errors. However, such will not happen if you use scientific literature and indicate it in the bibliography.
- Academic style. Almost all types of student work are written in an academic style. You have the right to use complex sentences, participles and participles, terms and polysyllabic words. However, it is important that the sentences are built correctly, and the terms are applied to the place. Do not intentionally complicate the text if you have no experience.
Well and the most important thing. You can simply order a report. Studlanser will find literature on the topic, prepare and execute the text. There is nothing criminal in it - the main part of the work (namely, speaking to an audience) you will have to do yourself in any case. Be sure to prepare a speech. You don’t need to memorize - a simple retelling will be enough.
The order and content of the elements:
- The table of contents is compiled according to plan. Each item starts on a new line with the page number.
- The introduction briefly outlines the main idea of the work, its relevance, novelty, goals.
- The main part should fully disclose the topic, contain arguments, arguments.
- The final part includes the conclusions made by the rapporteur on the results of the work done.
- List of used literature, designed in accordance with GOST.
After the structure of the report is determined, the plan is drawn up, you can proceed to its design. Usually they use the Word text editor, Times New Roman font, 12-14 pt, one and a half line spacing, alignment to the width of the sheet. Page layout - left margin 30 mm, the rest 20 mm each. Mandatory page numbering: often - in the upper right corner.
No dots in headings. The title page and contents are not numbered. Each individual part of the report should begin with a new sheet.
How to make a cover page for a report
On the title page, the name of the educational institution is indicated at the top, then the type of work, its topic, information about the artist and manager, year of writing.
You can use predefined blank cover sheets from Microsoft Word. Select the "Insert" block in the upper left corner of the toolbar.
Click on the “Cover Page” line, the application will offer several cover options. All that remains is to enter the necessary data - and you're done. The Grid model provides space for abstracts.
It is made as follows:
- sections begin with a new sheet,
- their names must be consistent with the plan,
- the heading is usually located in the center of the line and is shown in bold.