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16th century English kings

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The royal title was born on the shores of Misty Albion in the 9th century. Since then, the highest throne of the state was occupied by representatives of various English dynasties. However, the blood relationship between the kings and queens of England was continuous.

This was due to the fact that each new royal dynasty arose from the marriage of its founder with a representative of the previous one. England is a state where, over 12 centuries, women have become the head of the country six times.

History carefully preserves the names of Mary I, Elizabeth I, Mary II, Anna, Victoria and now living Elizabeth II.

The first kings of England were representatives of the Norman House. Moreover, it is interesting that at first Normandy was just a special duchy, and only then - the French province. It began with the Norman raids on this northern part of France, and the invaders found refuge between their robber attacks at the mouth of the Seine.

In the 9th century, the ranks of the invaders were led by the son of Rognwald - Rolf (Rollon), who had previously been banished by the Norwegian king.. Having won several major battles, Rollon took root in the lands, called the Country of the Normans or Normandy.

Seeing that the enemy was worthy in order to maintain power, the king of France, Charles, met with the invader and offered him the coastal part of the state on his own terms: Rollon had to recognize himself as royal vassal and be baptized. The ambitious exile from the Norwegian kingdom not only accepted the rite of baptism, but also took Gisella, Karl's daughter, as his wife.

Thus, the dukes of Normandy were laid. The great-granddaughter of Rollon became the wife of King Ethelred of England (House of Saxony) and, thus, the Norman dukes received the official right to claim the throne of Britain. Wilhelm II did an excellent job of this task, from which the royal roots of the Normans began.

This wise leader began his reign by starting to distribute the lands of England to his friends in arms.

And since more and more Norman detachments continued to arrive from the north, there was no shortage of replenishment of the army of comrades-in-arms of William II. The new rulers of England adopted Christianity and began to speak English, however, preserving, however, traces of the Scandinavian origin in the Norman dialect. The character of the Normans was evident in their desire to travel and conquer new countries.

After the death of William "Long Sword", the heir to the Norman duchy became a young Richard. This served as the claims of the French king, which, despite numerous intrigues, ended in nothing, and after the accession to the throne of Richard II, Normandy began to closely converge with England.

This process, not without the help of King Henry, ended with the installation of the new King William on the English throne. Since then, the dynasties of British kings have made repeated attempts to unite England with Normandy, but each time the matter ended only with a new strengthening of kinship.

During the reign of the English king Henry I, new claims to the throne of England began. This time, the initiative came from his daughter Matilda, who was then recognized as the legal heiress.

After the death of the English king Henry I, Stephen Blois and Matilda entered into an open war. Matilda was then married a second time, her husband was Gottfried Plantagenet of Anjou. The latter captures Normandy in 1141, and then King Louis VII recognizes his son Henry as head of the Norman Duchy.

Plantagenets

From this time the Plantagenet dynasty began. They ruled in England between 1154–1399. The founder of this royal family, Gottfried, received his nickname for the habit of attaching a gorse branch to his military helmet, whose yellow flowers were pronounced like a genius plant.

He became the husband of Matilda, from their marriage Heinrich (1133) appeared, who, after the death of Stephen Bloisky, became the founder of the dynasty, that is, the man who ascended the throne of England.

This dynasty lasted during the reign of eight kings. These were Henry II, Richard I, John Landless, Henry III, Edward I, Edward II, Edward III and Richard II. Edward III became the ancestor of the next dynasty - Lancaster.

Lancaster

This branch grows from the same house as the Plantagenets.

The first representative of the Lancaster branch officially ascended to the royal throne was Henry IV.

And his father - John of Ghent - was the son of King Edward III. However, the genealogy made its reading in this alignment: John of Ghent was the third son of King Edward III, and his second son was Lionel Klarensky, whose descendant in the person of Edmond Mortimer had more preferable chances for the royal crown.

From the same very prolific King Edward III, another royal branch of England, the York Dynasty, originates. She comes from Edmund, the fourth son of King Edward III.

Lancaster were the bearers of the titles of counts and dukes. Henry III Plantagenet became the parent of Edmund, it was the youngest son of the king and he bore the humble title of count. His grandson Henry became, through the efforts of the throne of Edward III, who ascended the throne in those days, the duke.

Henry's daughter, named Blanca, became the wife of Edward III's son, John Plantagenet, who was later elevated to the Dukes of Lancaster. The eldest son of John and Blanca and became the ancestor of the dynasty, it was Henry IV.

This royal house stood from 1399 to 1461, not very long. And all because the grandson of Henry IV - Henry VI - died on the battlefields, just like the son of Henry VI - Edward. 24 years after this surname representing the dynasties of England faded away, the throne was headed by Henry from the Tudor family - female Lancaster relatives.

The history of this royal house is very interesting. It starts from Wales, it is a branch of the Coylhen clan, and any member of this family automatically has the right to own England. Owen Tudor's son, Maredid, married a widow of Henry V, Catherine of France.

The sons of these Tudors, named Edmund and Jasper, were the uterine brothers of Henry IV. Having ascended the throne, this king of England granted the sons of the surname Tudors count titles.

Thus, Edmund became Earl of Richmond, and Jasper became Earl of Pembroke. After that, the family ties of Lancaster and Tudor were sealed again. Edmund married Margarita Beaufort.

She was the great-granddaughter of the founder of the Lancaster branch, John Gaunt Plantagenet. And this happened, thanks to the legalized line, which included the descendants of John's mistress, Katerina Swinford, who previously could not claim the high throne of England. From the marriage of Edmund and Margarita Beaufort, the future king of England Henry VII was born.

The dying branch of the Lancaster provided significant assistance to the Tudor dynasty, supporting Henry Tudor, despite the fact that the Beaufort family also included the notorious Duke of Buckingham.

The power in England was captured by Richard III, but could not hold it, and then Henry ascended the throne, married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV and laid the foundation for the unification of the Lancaster dynasty with the Yorks.

The royal Tudor dynasty after the death of Henry VII continued with the reign of Henry VIII. He had three children. It was they who headed the high throne of England after his death. These were representatives of the Tudor branch, King Edward VI and the Queen - Mary I “Bloody” and Elizabeth I.

After the death of Elizabeth I, the Tudor dynasty died out. The closest of the surviving relatives was the Scottish king James VI, who was the son of Mary Stuart - the daughter of James V. He, in turn, was born into the world Margarita Tudor, sister of Henry VIII. Thus began the new royal dynasty - the Stuarts.

The Stuart dynasty ascended the throne in 1603. This surname belongs to the descendants of Walter, who had risen under Malcolm III (XI century). Since then, the glorious dynasty has known many heroes, victories and ruins.

There are a lot of French blood in the Stuart branch (Magdalene of Valois, Maria Guise and other royal names).

Mary Stuart, mother of James V, was an orphan and was completely in the hands of Elizabeth I. She deposed the Scottish heiress from the throne and executed in England. The surviving son of Mary - Jacob VI - united England, Scotland and Ireland, although he ruled for only 22 years.

In general, historians speak unfriendly of the Stuart rule. Representatives of this dynasty are Charles I, James II, Maria Stuart, Anna Stuart and James III. This branch died away with the death of Henry Benedict, who was the grandson of Jacob II.

These royal dynasty ruled England in the years 1714-1901. They originate from the German Welshs. They ascended the throne due to the fact that Catholics, close in kinship to the Tudors, were cut off from the opportunity to take over the rule of the country in their hands.

The first king of Hanover did not speak English at all. Historians believe that we are talking about the Regency, which was replaced by the Victorian era. Ruling Persons: George III, George IV, William IV and Victoria. Another branch of this dynasty is the Dukes of Cambridge.

The situation in the kingdom of England on the eve of the Tudor dynasty

The history of the Tudor rule is the most exciting detective story for posterity in five centuries. For the possession of the royal crown as a result of the feud between the clans of York and Lancaster in England, a dynastic war raged for three decades. The confrontation between the current king Henry VI and the influential duke Richard of York reached its maximum aggravation in 1450. The English House of Commons insisted on the expulsion of Henry VI and Richard York was proposed as heir to the throne.

Thirty years of massacre, including dozens of big battles and hundreds of minor skirmishes, ended with the victory of the Lancaster troops on August 22, 1485 in a battle near the small village of Bosworth. The hunchback king Richard III fell on the battlefield. The York and Lancaster families ceased to exist.

Henry VII - first monarch of the Tudor dynasty

The owner of the royal crown was Henry VII Tudor, there was a change of dynasties, a new Tudor dynasty will be released for a century. Such a long struggle of the Yorks with Lancaster weakened the position of royal power. In the kingdom, the separatism of the nobility broke out with the active support of militant feudal squads. The nobility in many territories of the kingdom achieved wide privileges. The Catholic clergy subjugated the English Church, it was dependent on papal Rome and was not subject to the crown. Only forty years later (1534) did the English parliament proclaim Henry VIII the head of the church instead of the pope by the Act of Suprematism.

Having ascended the throne by right of origin, which some historians consider doubtful, Henry VII began to strengthen his power and unite the kingdom. The disobedient nobles were deprived of possessions, the protests of the rebellious aristocracy were suppressed, the feudal squads were disbanded. The stocks of the royal treasury increased sharply due to the selected property and lands of the rebels. The king distributed part of the wealth of the new nobility, considering it the pillar of the throne.

Henry VII began to grow a new aristocracy (gentry), endowing it with titles, lands. He reformed the judicial rights of the Lords and strengthened the powers of the royal servants. The king methodically checked the execution of his decrees. He created a number of institutes, including the Star Chamber. In the beginning, she controlled the execution of the dissolution of the feudal squads, later it grew into a ruthless royal trial of political traitors. During the centuries of Tudor rule (1485-1603), a different model of government, the absolute monarchy, was established in the kingdom. During the 24 years of the reign of Henry VII, the royal treasury's income grew, at the end of his tenure on the throne amounted to 2 million pounds.

Henry VIII-Second Monarch of the Tudor Dynasty

Henry VIII Tudor, replacing his father on the throne, took his principles of government as a basis. Historians write that the king was superbly educated, was known as an extraordinary nature, while he was a tyrannical nature, who does not tolerate objections to any manifestations of his activities. The English nobility was diluted with a wealthy rural and urban bourgeoisie. Parliament did not limit the sovereignty of the monarch.

The royal administration controlled the parliamentary election process, forming in it a party loyal to the king. The tentacles of the king were also launched into the system of local government in the counties. Along with the selected magistrates in the counties were the sheriffs appointed by the crown. The absolutism of the monarch affirmed unconditionally. The specifics of the Tudor rule was the lack of a regular army. Due to the island position of the state of England, there were not many external enemies, so the Royal Guard created by Henry VII consisted of a couple of hundred people.

Military operations carried out by the Tudors on the continent were carried out by mercenaries and volunteer nobles. The fleet in the kingdom totaled up to 50 ships, but the monarch at the moment of the danger of the kingdom had the right to attract merchant ships to strengthen its power. However, the financial crisis was a big headache for Henry VIII and all subsequent Tudors. The English kings and queens, pressing the parliament, demand more and more subsidies, establish new duties on merchants.

King Edward VI

The next king, Edward VI, inherited the throne at the age of nine. Convinced Protestants, the Duke of Somerset (first) and the Duke of Northumberland (later) were regents of the young Edward VI, whose reign was short-lived. The young king managed to carry out a number of religious reforms. The English reformation of the first three Tudors was led by Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556), Archbishop of Canterbury. Mass in English began the first parliament (1547) of the young king. The “Uniformity Act” was developed under the reign of Edward VI; he established worship in England in English. The basis was a prayer book compiled by Kranmer. At the age of sixteen, Edward VI died.

Lady Jane Gray Queen for nine days

After his death, the throne is usurped by the granddaughter of Henry VII-Lady Jane Gray. The plan of the Duke of Northumberland, at the insistence of which the king appointed Jane Gray as heir, failed. Nine days later, she, her family, and the Duke of Northumberland were arrested, charged with high treason, and executed on the block.

Queen Maria Tudor

Maria Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII from her first marriage, takes the throne. Maria Tudor was an ardent Catholic and was able to restore Catholicism in the kingdom for a short time. Her actions were aimed at the persecution and destruction of the leaders of the Reformation. Protestants gave her the nickname of Bloody Mary for the execution of Archbishop T. Kranmer, H. Latimer, M. Caverdal and others. But she did not return to the church the monastic property taken by her father. Her marriage to Philip II of Spain was considered by many to be a rapprochement with Spain. An uprising led by a nobleman White (1554) arose under the slogan of defending England from Spain. It was suppressed, not supported by the London bourgeoisie.

Queen Elizabeth I Tudor

After the death of Maria Tudor, Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII Tudor from the second marriage, not recognized by the pope, becomes the owner of the royal crown. Elizabeth I returned Protestantism to the kingdom, and the parliament confirmed the dominant role of the crown in church affairs. The right to appoint bishops belonged exclusively to the queen. The English kings and queens were the supreme rulers of the church of England. The laws of the government of Elizabeth I equated the transition from Protestants to Catholics to treason.

Queen Elizabeth was an inimitable ruler. Her foresight was expressed in the desire to provide the crown with loyalty and protection from the bourgeois-noble layers of the population. She patronized peerdom, forgave debts and supported the feudal nobility with cash payments from the royal treasury, gave away titles, posts and lands. The political experience of all Tudors was taken by her for the practical management of the kingdom. The Queen honed the policy of (all Tudors) maneuvering between the nobility and the bourgeoisie to perfection. The protectionism of the queen gave impetus to production and trade.

The prohibitions on the export of wool and raw cloth from the kingdom, laid down under Henry VII, contributed to the development of textile production. Elizabeth vigorously supported glass and paper production. Her initiative has made significant progress in the development of metallurgy and mining. But by the beginning of the 17th century, the royal crown was experiencing a severe financial deficit.

The foreign policy of the state demanded a lot of expenses that devastated the treasury. The aggressive actions in Ireland, the war with Spain, the support of Protestants in France and the Netherlands devastated the royal treasury. The policy of tacking Elizabeth began to slip. An anti-government conspiracy arose (1601) under the leadership of Count Essex, the Queen's favorite. Londoners did not support the rebels. Earl of Essex was executed. Финансовое банкротство королевской власти и конфликты с парламентом положили начало концу английского абсолютизма.

В конце правления Елизаветы I Англия делает большие успехи во внешней торговле. Английские купцы получают от правительства финансовые привилегии. Королева оказывала покровительство внешней торговле и судоходству. Благодаря ее опеке и милостям Англия создала мощный военный флот. Победа над испанской «Непобедимой армадой» относится ко времени ее правления.

Королева прекрасно была осведомлена о пиратских рейдах, прикрывала пиратов, которые ей отдавали часть награбленного. A diamond from looted treasures adorned her crown. Pirate expeditions became a source of income for merchants and the queen. In England, in 1588, the Guinean company was founded, which exported black slaves from Africa for almost a hundred years. Established in 1600, the East India Company facilitated the infiltration of the kingdom into India. This company was the only one that had a monopoly on trading operations on the shores of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The Crown found a way out of financial difficulties by creating such companies, because merchants brought great income to its treasury.

The absence of children from the last queen from the Tudors marks the sunset of the dynasty. The Stuart dynasty appears in the historical arena. King of Scotland Jacob VI receives the crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Tudor Dynasty. English kings. List

1. Richard III York (1483-1485) is the last representative of the Plantagenets.
2. Henry VII (1485-1509), the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty.
3. Henry VIII Tudor (1509-1547), son of King Henry VII.
4. Edward VI (1547-1553), son of Henry VIII.
5. Jane Gray (from July 10, 1553 to July 19, 1553).
6. Mary I Tudor (1553-1558), daughter of Henry VIII.
7. Elizabeth I (1558-1601), daughter of Henry VIII, the last of the Tudor dynasty.

The Tudors' rise to power marked the end of medieval England and the beginning of a new era. The symbol of their rule was a white-red scarlet rose. With no rival candidates for the throne, the Tudors had virtually no opposition. This circumstance gave them the opportunity to rule the kingdom without civil confrontation.

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The Tudor Dynasty History

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Periods of English history
Tudor period(1485—1558)
Elizabethan era(1558—1603)
Jacobian era(1603—1625)
Carolina era(1625—1642)
Civil Wars, Republic and Protectorate (1642—1660)
Stuart Restoration and Glorious Revolution(1660—1688)
UK education(1688—1714)
Georgian era(1714—1811)
Regency(1811—1830)
Victorian era(1837—1901)
Edwardian era(1901—1910)
World War I(1914—1918)
Interwar period(1918—1939)
The Second World War(1939—1945)

Comes from a welsh noble family ap tuddurnamed after Tudur ap Goronwy (Wall. Tudur ap Goronwy, 1310-1367), whose genus has long owned land on the island of Anglesey.

It is one of the branches of the Coylhen clan, and thus had a formal right to own all of Britain. The Tudors began to play a role in English history with the son of Maredid Owen Tudor, who married Catherine of France, the widow of Henry V. Two sons were born from this marriage - Edmund and Jasper - to whom their half-brother Henry VI gave the titles of Count Richmond and Count Pembroke, respectively. Edmund Tudor once again became related to the Lancaster house, marrying the great-granddaughter of the founder of this branch, John Gaunt (through the legalized line of the descendants of his mistress, and later his wife, Katerina Swinford), who did not officially have the right to the throne Margarita Beaufort. From this marriage (after the death of his father) the future Henry VII (1457) was born.

After the death of the last Lancaster, Prince Edward (1471), the Lancaster party supported the candidacy of Henry Tudor, who was in France, although there were other applicants who were also related to the Beauforts (for example, the Duke of Buckingham). Taking advantage of the crisis in England after the seizure of power by Richard III, Henry landed in Wales, moved inland, defeated Richard, who fell at the Battle of Bosworth, and became king on August 22, 1485. Henry strengthened the right to the throne by marrying Edward IV of York's daughter Elizabeth, thus, the houses of Lancaster and York were united.

After Henry VII, his son reigned Henry VIII, and then the three children of the latter: Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I. Between the reigns of Edward and Mary, the throne was usurped by the great-granddaughter of Henry VII, Lady Jane Gray.

Since the children of Henry VIII did not leave offspring, with the death of Elizabeth I, the Tudor dynasty ceased. The closest relative of the dynasty was the king of Scotland, Jacob VI, the son of Mary Stuart, who was the daughter of Jacob V, whose mother was the sister of Henry VIII Margarita Tudor. Thus, after Elizabeth the throne passed to Jacob (who became king of England as Jacob I), and the Stuart dynasty began to reign in both kingdoms of the British Isles.

The Tudor Time is the period of the Renaissance in England, the formation of absolutism, the country's active participation in European politics, the heyday of culture (material and spiritual), economic reforms (enclosure), which led to the impoverishment (pauperization) of a significant part of the population. One of the most dramatic events of the period was the English Reformation, undertaken by Henry VIII for personal reasons (lack of Rome’s sanction for a new marriage), the Counter-Reformation and repression against Protestants under Mary, a new return to Anglicanism under Elizabeth.

Under the Tudors, England reached America (the Cabot expedition — the end of the 15th century) and began its colonization. An important political event that strengthened the unity of the nation was a naval victory over the Spanish “Invincible Armada” in 1588.

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