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How to push the core

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Shot put.

Shot put is a sports track and field discipline in which athletes compete in throwing at a range with a pushing hand movement of a special sports projectile “core”.

Shot put - requires explosive strength and good coordination from athletes.

Shot put is the Olympic track and field discipline for men since 1896, for women since 1948.

Shot put is part of the track and field all-around.

Shot put history.

According to researchers, the basics of sports discipline "shot put" were laid in folk games and fun - shot put (logs, weights, stones).

The fascination with the pushing of the core appeared in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in England, from where it began to spread to other countries.

As a sport, shot put also began to take shape in England in the mid-19th century, when the first competition in throwing (pushing) a core weighing 16 pounds (7.257 kg) from a circle with a diameter of 7 feet (2.134 m) began.

The first world record in shot put belongs to the Englishman Fraser and is 10m 62cm - was set in 1866.

In 1896, shot put competitions among men were included in the program of the First Olympic Games in Athens.

The core push technique of that time was primitive, the athletes did not use the entire area of ​​the circle and pushed the core, jumping forward with one leg, in a “jump” way. This technique was actively used by core pushers for many decades and lasted until 1950.

It is interesting that until 1912 the champion was identified by the best attempt at a push with both hands, and even the amount of push from both hands was determined - this was encouraged the harmonious development of athletes.

The most popular shot put competitions were in the UK and the USA.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the most famous shot putter was Olympic champion American Ralph Rose. His height exceeded 2m, and the weight was 125kg. R. Rose set his world record in shot put (15m 54cm) in 1909.

Pictured by Ralph Rose.

Shot put technique was gradually improved.

Athletes were able to significantly increase the path of application of force to the projectile due to the greater bending of the right leg before the start of the preliminary and final acceleration, as well as the tilt of the body to the right leg. The speed of the starting acceleration increased and its losses decreased during this phase. Due to the quick placing of the left leg on the support and changing the nature of its work, to a large extent in the organization of the final effort, the energy of elastic deformation of specific muscle groups began to be used.

A significant contribution to the improvement of technology at this stage was made by E. Hirschfeld (Germany, 1928, 16.04 m), B. Watson (USA, 1939, 16.61 m).

For a long time there was an opinion that shot putters must necessarily have great muscle mass and great growth, no one could have imagined that an athlete weighing 85 kg would be able to set world records in shot put. The first person to do this was the African American C. Fonville, who had outstanding speed in shot put.

In the 1940s - K. Fonville (17m 68cm).

In the early 1950s, the traditional method of pushing the nucleus of the “jump” was further developed. P. O'Brien (USA), subsequently a two-time Olympic champion, suggested starting a preliminary acceleration from the starting position, with his back to the direction of the projectile's flight. This made it possible to significantly reduce the initial height of the projectile above the ground and thereby reduce the angle between the velocity vectors communicated to the nucleus in the phases of the starting and final acceleration. Along with this, the “closed” position before the final acceleration made it possible to increase the overall torso to the right leg and to disperse the projectile along a curved path, which made it possible to lengthen the active site of the application of force to the core. Improving the structure of motor actions has led to a significant increase in world achievements in this period.

In the photo of P. O'Brien.

Through the efforts of such athletes as: P. O'Brien (19.30 m), W. Nieder (USA, 20.06 m), D. Long (USA, 20.68 m), R. Matson (USA, 21, 78 m), E. Feuerbach (USA, 21.82 m) - the shot put record was very close to the 22-meter mark.

However, this milestone was already overcome with the help of a new version in the shot put technique - rotational, known as the method of A. Baryshnikov (USSR, 22.00 m).

In the photo, Alexander Baryshnikov.

The theoretical foundations for constructing such a movement were developed in the early 1960s, however, its practical implementation became possible only thanks to the creative activity of the outstanding trainer V. Alekseev. The rotational method, or the circular mach method, is characterized by a higher starting acceleration speed. It allows you to more effectively use the preliminary stretching of the muscles of the body at the beginning of the final acceleration, as well as slightly increase the radius of its rotation.

At present, nuclear shot putters use both variants of the shot put technique, since their practical significance is almost equivalent. This is evidenced by the growth of the world record in this kind of athletics.

Achievement of A. Baryshnikov with the use of new technology with rotational motion was subsequently surpassed by W. Bayer (GDR, 22.12 and 22.22 m), A. Andrei (Italy, 22.91 m), W. Timmerman (GDR, 23, 06 m), using the traditional method of accelerating the nucleus, as well as Randy Barnes (USA, 23.12 m), performing rotational motion in the circle.

Pictured by Randy Barnes.

Shot put in women.

Much later than men, women began to take part in nuclear throwing competitions. The first official world record belonged to the Austrian athlete H. Keplle in 1926 and was 9m 57cm.

In 1938, for the first time, women pushed the core at the European Championships, and since 1948, women began to participate in this form at the Olympics.

Since the 1940s, thanks to the achievements of Soviet athletes, the growth of world records in the shot put in women began: T. Sevryukova (14m 59cm), G. Zybina (16m. 76cm), T. Press (18m 59cm), N. Chizhova ( 20m 43cm).

Since the late 1960s, the best athletes in the shot put were women from the USSR and the German Democratic Republic. The world record belongs to the Soviet athlete Natalya Lisovskaya and is 22m 63cm (1987).

In the photo Natalya Lisovskaya.

Shot put. World records.

The world record among men - 23.12 m - was established by Randy Barnes (USA) on May 20, 1990 in Westwood, Los Angeles, USA.

Women's world record - 22.63 m - Natalya Lisovskaya (USSR) on June 7, 1987 in Moscow, USSR.

The search for the best technique in shot put continues all the time.

Shot put. The history of the shot put.

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