The duration of a hiking trip is determined not only by the quantity, free time and health status of tourists. For schoolchildren, age also matters here. Children 10-11 years old can only go on a one-day hike (on foot, skiing). At 12-13 years, you can allow two-three-day trips with overnight stays in a well-equipped base. But adolescents 15-16 years can participate in any tourist trips.
If you need drinking water on a trip, and for some reason you can’t boil it, there are several ways to disinfect the water.
1. Dissolve crystals of potassium permanganate in water (so that it becomes pale pink).
2. Buy a pantocide tablet at the pharmacy before you go camping: one tablet is enough for a flask of water (disinfection lasts about 15 minutes).
You can’t drink on the march: a large amount of drunk water impedes the work of the heart, “leaches” mineral salts from the body, and increases sweating. Before.
on a hike you can eat a piece of bread sprinkled with salt, or a piece of herring and get drunk to quench your thirst.
Drinking in the campaign is allowed only at large halts.
Do not use snow in the winter to quench your thirst. Firstly, you can catch a cold and secondly, the snow is devoid of mineral salts and they will not "get drunk." It is not suitable for the same reason, neither for soup, nor for tea. We need water from a well, river, stream (necessarily flowing).
If poisoning has occurred, for example, with poor quality food, first flush the stomach with the victim. For this, they give drink (preferably in one gulp) 4-6 glasses of water. A copious amount of water will cause vomiting, after which you can give a laxative, put the patient, warm him.
Sometimes the cause of poisoning is dishes: galvanized, copper or tinned. Therefore, camping is best to take enameled or aluminum utensils.
Travel bread can be baked without a pan and pan. Having rolled out the dough with a strip no wider than 5 centimeters, they wrap it around the stick, having previously cleared it of bark. The stick with the dough is held over the fire, slowly turning. You can stick several of these sticks with dough into the ground around the fire.
You can bake steamed buns. To do this, put a pot of dough rolls in a bucket of water. The bucket and pan must be tightly closed. Water in a bucket boils, a steam bath is created, as it were, in which buns are baked. When they are ready, they are taken out and cooled in the wind.
On a long trip, you must take a first-aid kit. Take a few (2-5 first aid packages (it is better if you can take them by the number of participants), cotton wool, hydrogen peroxide (to cleanse the wound of dirt), petroleum jelly, iodine, ammonia. A sticky patch is needed (it is good to apply it on corn), potassium permanganate <им можно="" полоскать="" горло,="" если="" заболело,="" и="" даже="" выпить="" полстакана="" светло-розово="" го="" раствора="" при="" расстройстве="">им>
In summer, there are many mosquitoes in the forest. They are especially annoying at halts. Mosquito repellent paste "Taiga", dimethyl phthalate, repudin.
On the way, you can use medicinal plants. With an upset stomach, a decoction of oak bark, buckthorn bark, fresh blueberries, jelly from it or a blackcurrant decoction helps. Berry cones of the juniper and dandelion roots improve digestion. From cough and colds, you can give a decoction of the leaves of flowers of coltsfoot. And with light scuffs on the legs, you can attach a well-washed plantain leaf to a sore spot.
In order not to spill medicine from the vial, it is necessary to put on the neck of a baby rubber nipple and tie it with a ribbon or bandage.
The iodine vial should not be stacked with iron or steel objects. Iodine vapor penetrates even through the ground stopper and causes the formation of rust.
To quickly dry wet shoes, they must be tightly packed with dry hay and hang in the wind.
With the bites of poisonous insects, bees - remove the sting, squeeze out the poison from the wound, make a lotion of ammonia. If a poisonous snake bites, you need to quickly apply a tourniquet, cauterize the wound with potassium permanganate crystals. The tourniquet can be kept no more than 1.5-2 hours. With a tumor, half-alcohol warming compresses are applied. It is dangerous to suck out the poison from the wound by mouth, since there are usually minor injuries of the mucous membrane in the mouth, through which the poison can be absorbed into the blood and cause poisoning.
Tourists on a hiking trip should especially monitor the condition of their legs. Shoes should not be new, worn, but not very loose. Sneakers with a thick insole are good when hiking, but they definitely need woolen socks, they absorb sweat well. You can’t go camping in sandals or sandals.
Do not wash your feet during the march, this will make them sweat even more, and diaper rash between the toes may form. Feet should be washed before bedtime.
With heavy sweating, a formalin solution, or a little boric acid, or tannin is added to the water.
The skullcaps in the campaign do not bring any benefit. It’s best to wear a white panama over your head. Too much sun is good protection for the eyes - sunglasses.
A tourist costume should be light and free. Best for a summer hike light blouses and harem pants for girls, T-shirts and pants for boys. For both boys and girls, a cowboy and short pants are good shorts.
Every tourist should have a towel, soap with a soap dish, a toothbrush in a case, a box of tooth powder, a mug, a comb.
During sun and heat stroke, the victim is taken into the shade, laid, giving the head an elevated position, moisten the head with water, fan with a towel, newspaper. Hot water bottles are applied to the legs.
When bleeding from the nose, it is necessary to seat the victim, slightly raising his head. Cold compresses are applied to the nose and forehead. Tampons moistened with a solution of baking soda or hydrogen peroxide can be inserted into the nostrils.
If your eyes become clogged, they should never be rubbed. It is best to rinse your eyes with warm water. By pulling out the eyelid, you can remove the mote with a clean piece of cotton or bandage soaked in a two percent solution of boric acid.
How to choose the right type of tourism and where to go for a beginner
In general, tourism can be on foot, water, mountain, bicycle and ski. Trips on a motorcycle, car and sail are also types of tourism. Without good physical preparation, it’s better not to try mountain hikes right away, but for water and cycling you need solid equipment. It is better for beginners to try their hand at the simplest form of tourism - on foot. There you will have to answer only for yourself (because there is no equipment), in addition, it will be easier for you to adjust the route.
For starters, it's best to choose popular and well-traveled routes. Avoid wetlands. Look for those routes where there are clear rivers or springs on the way. It is better to start with the nature of your own and neighboring areas, and only then plan exits to Karelia, Altai or the Crimea.
Where to look for information and like-minded people
Basic hiking information can be found on travel sites, forums, and YouTube. If you already roughly understand what to take and where to go, read someone else's hiking reports. They are most often written by people with great experience, many travel to wild places in the Caucasus, Altai and even Kamchatka.
If none of your friends is ready to sign up for kilometers of travel, cold nights and a bunch of insects, you can try to find like-minded people. There are quite a few tourist clubs and organizations, most often they are created on the basis of universities. To get to them, just find them (studying at this university and generally being a student is optional). There are also many communities on social networks where participants share experiences and invite to join their campaign.
For those who do not trust amateur performances and want to have everything planned out for him at first, there are travel companies that organize trips. The routes they offer can be more complicated and picturesque.
What you need to take with you
First you need to find the most necessary things, without which you simply can not arrange a night - this is a backpack, tent and sleeping bag. For short trips, a small backpack (35-50 liters) is suitable, for weekly and more you will have to take 80-120 liters. The backpack should sit well on you, fit to your shoulders and back, have a comfortable belt.
The tent is best taken ordinary, double or triple. At a cost, they start from a couple of thousand rubles.
Almost any cheap sleeping bag is suitable for a warm summer. For a cold summer and other seasons, a sleeping bag should be chosen carefully, paying attention to the temperature of comfort (the one with which you will sleep well and not freeze) and the extreme temperature (the one in which you will survive in this sleeping bag). Be sure to take a rug with you on a camping trip: it isolates from the cold and is needed in order to lay it on the bottom of the tent, and only then put a sleeping bag.
The minimum cooking set for a camping trip is a burner, gas bottle and pan. Of the important things you should take a knife, a lighter, a flashlight, a repellent and a first-aid kit. In summer, sunscreen is very useful.
From clothes it is better to take synthetic t-shirts (they dry faster) and any comfortable pants. From shoes, spaced running sneakers are also suitable, but it is better to choose special tracking ones. You need to bring a warm sweatshirt or fleece jacket, a raincoat and several pairs of spare socks with you. For the cold season, you need a jacket with a hood, hat, gloves and thermal underwear.
Where and how to look for it
All clothing and equipment can be found in online sports stores, such as Sportmaster or Decathlon. There are also special tourist shops - they are usually more expensive. Many things can be found in a simple hypermarket: inexpensive dishes, rubber boots, clothes. If you are not in a hurry and want to save money, then order everything online in Chinese stores.
For those who are particularly inventive, the equipment budget can be almost zero. The most modest version of equipment can be collected for 5-6 thousand rubles, especially if you divide some things into two or three friends. A more decent option with a comfortable backpack, a stable tent and a warm, compact sleeping bag will cost 15-20 thousand. Real madmen can spend forever.
What to put in a backpack and what to do with food
For a trip it is very important to choose a route. For the first time, it’s best to find ready-made routes with detailed descriptions on the Internet. The easiest and cheapest option for orienting yourself on the terrain is a map (you must remember to protect it from rain) and a compass. But it is worth saying that in the forest it is rather difficult to navigate along the trails, if this is not a very well-groomed route. It’s best to buy a navigator and to have an application with maps in your phone for safety.
Before collecting things, make a list so you don’t forget anything.
It is better to pack things in a backpack with modules (separately food, separately clothes, separately a first-aid kit and hygiene products). Put heavy things on your back, so it will be easier to carry a backpack. Be sure to pack the sleeping bag and change clothes well so as not to wet them. To protect against moisture, you can put things in special pressure bags, but at first they can be replaced by vacuum bags and dense garbage bags fastened with tape.
The food you take with you should be stored for a long time. For her, there are two more important criteria: nutrition and weight. Your set of food should be high-calorie at the same time, contain protein and carbohydrates, and at the same time weigh a little so that you do not die under the weight of a backpack. Take along different cereals, pasta, noodles, mashed potatoes, smoked sausage and stew, cream cheese, bread or crackers. Such a thing as a trail mix came to us from foreign tourists. This is a mixture of different snacks: nuts, dried fruits, seeds, dried, banana chips, granola, M & M’s and everything else you can come up with. Trail mix saves during transitions and when there is no time for lunch.
If there is free space, you can take something pleasant for yourself and eat on the first day. It can be a chocolate bar, a can of cola, a couple of apples or mother’s pie.
In nature, anything can happen, so be sure to bring a first aid kit with you. It should have everything for dressings, anesthetizing, antipyretic, medicines for the stomach, cold remedies and a medicine for allergies. You also need to consider the personal intolerance of the drugs and do not forget to take those medicines that you may need. It is even better to spare no money and take first aid courses or look for free lectures on medicine.
Before you go, be sure to tell your relatives or friends where you are going and when you are going to return, so as not to repeat the story of the hero of the movie “127 Hours”.
And finally, what you need to remember when traveling
If you are already on a campaign, it is very important to properly distribute the forces. Alternate running time and rest. Ideally, you need to go 40-50 minutes, after which 10-15 minutes to rest and so alternate. Always maintain activity and a sufficient amount of energy during the trip: have a good breakfast, have lunch in the middle of the day, have a tight dinner, preferably with hot food (to freeze less at night). It is better to start the day early in the morning, and set up camp in the evening before dark. In the campaign also be sure to monitor the amount of remaining water and calculate its flow rate in advance.
In a campaign, as in any trip, something unexpected can happen. For example, the weather can dramatically worsen. In this case, you should be well equipped and always have options for adjusting the route. A more unpleasant moment is possible injuries, poisoning, overheating and the usual manifestations of diseases that are not terrible in the city, but can cause anxiety in nature. In this case, you need to have with you all the necessary medicines and also, if necessary, quickly change the route.
It also often happens that not all participants in the campaign find a common language in the field. Everything is on the campaign, as everywhere else: some are tired, others are making leaders out of themselves, others are frankly interfering. The only difference is that you cannot all easily disperse in different directions. For such things you just need to be mentally prepared and, if anything, take everything into your own hands.
It is possible to describe possible difficulties in a campaign endlessly. For most, the most successful solution would be not to panic and be smart. Any difficult situation can be perceived as a training of one’s ingenuity and endurance. And most importantly - do not forget that you yourself came up with all this and wanted to leave the comfort zone.